Li-Fi applications are varied as a result of its key features, such as directional lighting, energy efficiency, intrinsic security, high data rate capability, signal blocking by walls and integrated networking capability.

Each light fixture in the application environment becomes a separate data channel. These channels can supply different data into each separate pool of light, delivered at the full rated download speed for that channel.

Security

In a meeting room environment, the access area of each channel is the width of the light pool, and can be accessed by multiple users. Each user can receive higher data rates than would be the case for an equivalent Wi-Fi channel. In the Wi-Fi case, each user or group of users directly competes for access to bandwidth. The net result is that the more connections there are, the slower the download speeds are for all. By contrast, in the case of Li-Fi, with its greater number of available access points, each pool of light provides full channel data rates with fewer simultaneous users. The overall net benefit to each user is up to 1000 times greater speeds. In addition, and in contrast to radio waves, the light does not pass through the walls. Therefore, with minimal precautions to avoid leakage from windows, etc., security is fundamentally enhanced as compared with Wi-Fi.

Dense urban environments

Dense urban environments by their nature tend to have complete artificial lighting coverage. This lighting infrastructure can provide always available high data rate access for users as they move through that environment. For example, along a hotel corridor or reception hall a number of users can receive high data rate downloads at any point. Moreover, high speed wireless communication would be available in every room since the light waves do not propagate through walls. This results in interference-free wireless communication, and spectrum does not have to be shared among a large number of users in the rooms.

Cellular communication

In external urban environments, the use of Li-Fi enabled street lamps would provide a network of internet access points. In cellular communication, the distance between radio base stations has come down to about 200-500 metres. So, instead of deploying new radio base stations in our cities, street lamps could provide both, illumination during night, and high speed data communication 24/7. Surprisingly, even when the lights are off as perceived by the eye, full data communication rates are still possible. There is also an additional cost benefit as installing new radio base stations usually comes with large cost – for installation and site lease.

EMI sensitive environments

On aircraft, Li-Fi enabled lighting will allow high data rate connectivity for each passenger. It will allow connectivity at all times, without creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with sensitive radio equipment on the flight deck. The reduction in cabling requirement also means a lighter aircraft.

Augmented reality

Exhibits in museums and galleries are illuminated with specific lighting. Li-Fi enabled lighting can provide localised information within that light. This means that a visitor’s camera or mobile phone can be used to download further information regarding the object being viewed from the light that illuminates the exhibit.

Localised advertising

By using shop display lighting as a Li-Fi broadcast channel, it is possible to transmit advertising information on the goods being viewed, as well as say special offers and coupons. This will allow the merging of the high street and online shopping experience, and provide novel retail business models to emerge. Catalogue information, discount coupons, and advertising videos could all be provided to shoppers.

Underwater communication

Radio waves are quickly absorbed in water, preventing underwater radio communications, but light can penetrate for large distances. Therefore, Li-Fi can enable communication from diver to diver, diver to mini-sub, diver to drilling rig, etc.

Safety environments

In explosion hazard environments, the use of electrical equipment, including mobile phones, is generally greatly restricted. The use of Li-Fi to pass data will simplify the configuration of data networks in such environments, and can enable new systems to enhance security in these environments.

Intelligent transportation systems

Car headlights and tail lights are steadily being replaced with LED versions. This offers the prospect of car-to-car communication over Li-Fi, allowing development of anti-collision systems and exchange of information on driving conditions between vehicles. Traffic lights already use LED lighting, so that there is also the prospect offered of city wide traffic management systems. This would enable car systems to download information from the network and have real time information on optimal routes to take, and update the network regarding conditions recently experienced by individual vehicles.

Connectivity

Our homes already have lighting widely installed. The use of Li-Fi enabled lighting will transform the applications that can be envisaged, not only the interconnection of devices, such as televisions, computers and Hi-Fi, but also connecting ordinary domestic appliances, such as fridges, washing machines, microwaves and vacuums. The “internet of everything”.

Sensitive data

Hospitals are a specific case of an environment where both EMI sensitivity and security of data are issues. Li-Fi can enable the better deployment of secure networked medical instruments, patient records, etc.

Indoor navigation

By identifying each light (for example, through the use of the widely used MAC codes used by data routers and computers) it is possible to provide a smart means of navigating through urban environments. The identification of each code would be linked to a specific location. For example, light received from the closest fixture can indicate to a mobile user their exact position as they travel along a corridor.